Saturday, May 13, 2017

What is the Highest Form of Intelligence?

What is the highest form of intelligence? To find the 'highest form of intelligence', the place to start is the 'lowest form of intelligence', then work our way up and see where it takes us.  This exercise was started, very effectively, by Frank T. Vertosick Jr. in the book, The Genius Within: Discovering the Intelligence of Every Living ThingUnfortunately, Vertosick stopped short of the goal, probably due to the common error in scientific thinking - that we must separate 'science' from 'spirit'. 
Intelligence comes from life. Rocks, planets, and even stars are not alive - they don't have any intelligence, nor any need for intelligence. They have no goals, no reason to develop or apply intelligence. The lowest form of intelligence resides in chemicals that learn to cooperate to reproduce. Vertosick wrote "When I speak of intelligence, I mean the general ability to store past experiences and use that information to solve future problems. I'm not limiting my discussion to human intelligence... I call this 'brain chauvinism', and I will refute it by showing that all living things -- even those entirely devoid of nervous systems -- can (and must) use some sort of reason to survive... In other words, to be alive, one must think."
Vertosick then goes on to explain the source of intelligence "This book looks at intelligence as an emergent property of large groups. An emergent property is a property manifested by the whole group, even though the same property isn't apparent in any of the individuals comprising the group.... human intelligence is an emergent property of groups of nerve cells. And immune intelligence is an emergent property of a group of immune cells, cellular intelligence is an emergent property of a group of enzymes, and so on.... Networks are the basis of living intelligence in all scales of life from cell to ecosystem."
Vertosik missed a small point.  It's not 'groups' that are intelligent, it's communities. Groups of rocks or groups of planets, or groups of stars have no need for intelligence.  They do not act with intent, and do not benefit from any of their 'actions'.  Communities, communities of individual entities that compete and cooperate, create intelligence.  Communities of chemicals, that persist long enough to create communities of life, create intelligence.
Cooperation and competition are two sides of the coins of life, actions in a community. Like left and right, light and dark, inside and outside, each must exist for the other to exist.  Community is a group of life entities acting as a group.  Every community of cells is a community of cooperation and competition.  Even actions that are taken in self-interest, often aid the community, if only by producing stronger siblings. Even actions that are intended to be cooperative, can be interpreted as self-interest, if only to ensure the health, life, and reproduction of your siblings. 
Genes and other genetic components network and compete and cooperate to create the component of DNA, of viruses, and of life. This networking, competition, and cooperation creates life, health, and intelligence from lower level components.  These form networks, or communities, with other active chemicals, enzymes, etc. which compete and cooperate to create cells - which have a higher level of intelligence that simple genetic components, viruses, etc..  
Cells compete and cooperate to create cell masses and then tissues comprised of different cell types, that have intelligence higher than any simple cell. Cell masses and tissues compete and cooperate to create a body, with limbs, bodily organs, and organ systems through competition and cooperation that rises above the intelligence of cells. The body develops sensory systems, that evolve into nervous systems - an even higher level of intelligence.  Nervous systems mass and compete and cooperate to create brain components for vision, hearing, etc that are more sophisticated in their ability to sense, to learn, to predict.  Brain components compete and cooperate to create the mind, which rises above the body and learns to control the body.  A higher level of intelligence.  
Vertosick stops here and does not proceed further up the hierarchy in a comprehensive fashion. However, this hierarchy of life is also the hierarchy of healthicine (Hierarchy of Healthicine- History and Exploration), and we can use that model to rise higher in the levels of intelligence.  
Minds and spirits evolve together.  Every mammal clearly has 'spirit', feeling and acting excited, depressed, happy, hungry, etc. at different times. When we look closely, even a single cell has the spirit of life, and a community of cells has higher level spirits. As we climb the hierarchy of life, these feelings rise above the level of 'senses' and above the simple functions of the mind - memory, calculation, etc. The spirit that emerges from mind components working together, competing and  cooperating, creates a higher, more intelligent intelligence. 
Above spirits, we have communities of people. Which would include communities not just of body, not just of minds, but communities of spirits as well.  Clearly communities of people can remember more, and resolve problems that single humans cannot resolve.  We can write problems down, and work at them over centuries, and solve them by community cooperation and effort over time. History provides many examples of intelligence of communities operating over hundreds of years. 

The logical conclusion is that no human, no single being, not even any group of humans can attain the highest form of intelligence. 
Now we can see the common thread. Communities of genetic components create DNA and simple life forms like viruses. Communities of simple life forms create cells.  Communities of cells create tissues, which create organs, and bodies, communities of organs and body parts create living systems like our digestive systems, respiratory systems, hormonal systems, immune systems, nervous systems and more. Communities of systems create more and more complex, more and more intelligent bodies, which develop more complex, more and more intelligent minds and spirits. Communities of individual bodies, minds, and spirits cooperate to create The Beatles, Symphony Orchestras, religions, and many more thing that no individual could create or be by themselves. The intelligence of a city clearly rises above the intelligence of individuals, solving memory and logical problems that individuals cannot solve - even though it is not 'conscious' of its own intelligence.
Of course not every group, or community, of people creates a higher level of intelligence.  A group can just as easily, perhaps easier, create an unintelligent mob, that does really stupid things.  These groups too can exist over long periods of time - longer than any single lifetime. One of the most important aspects of intelligence includes the ability to make errors, and hopefully, eventually, to learn from those errors. 
The highest form of intelligence is also the lowest form of intelligence. It is the intelligence of communities, knowingly, or unknowingly cooperating and competing to create a new intelligence at a higher level. 
The highest form of intelligence is the intelligence of cooperation and competition to attain goals that were not even seen as possible, or useful, or anything, by the individual components that are creating it. 
Thinking that some aspect of human intelligence could be the 'highest form of intelligence' is simply, to use the words of Vertosick "brain chauvinism". We are not as intelligent as we think. We are only as intelligent as we can work together to attain goals at levels higher than those of the individual.

to your health, tracy
Founder: Healthicine

Friday, May 5, 2017

Fake News Warning: Gluten Free Diet

The last few days we have seen a flurry of FAKE NEWS headlines about gluten free diets.

FOX News: A gluten-free diet may raise your risk of heart disease
GLOBAL: Going gluten-free to ward off heart disease might have opposite effect: study
CBC: Healthy hearts: Gluten-free diets don't help people without celiac disease, study finds
MedicalNews.Net: Study finds no link between gluten intake and heart disease risk in people without celiac disease
Irish Mirror: Eating a gluten free diet when you're not coeliac could damage your health
NEJM: (email teaser) Low-Gluten Diet Not Tied to Lower Coronary Risk. (article header) Gluten-Restricted Diets Seem Not to Lower Coronary Risk

Are these reports fake news?  Yes, every one of them.  Let's check the facts.

Friday, April 7, 2017

Placebo Effect Ignorance

I was recently asked this question on Quora: "What is the true impact of placebo effect on science?" My answer:

Ignorance. The true effect, at present, of placebo effect on science is ignorance. Ignorance of cause, ignorance of consequences.

I am talking about the actual impact of placebo effect on science, and doing so in the hope that someday we can change that effect to something as powerful and useful as placebo effect actually is.
First, we need to clearly define some terms. I'll use Webster's. It's a a good place to start. Placebo effects don't “work”. We know that placebos work. But the question is about placebo effects, not placebos.

Thursday, March 30, 2017

When Doctors hate Doctors We all Lose Health

Medicine is broken. Fractured. We need medicine based on love, on caring, on helping each other.  Instead, much of modern medicine is based not just on competition, but on hatred.

Of course it's not everyone, and for the most part, I don't believe it's personal. Few, doctors, hate other types of doctors.

It's the system. The so called 'conventional medicine' system. It's a paradigm that hates other paradigms.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Is Wikipedia Fake News: Can Wikipedia be Cured?

Is Wikipedia 'fake news'? Does Wikipedia contain 'fake news'? How would we know?  Well, first of all, we need to understand the concept of fake news, and distinguish clearly between fake news and lies, truths, facts, non-facts, and bullshit. Perhaps we should begin with 'bullshit'.  Harry Frankfurt's essay, "On Bullshit" explores that concept in detail, and also in a nutshell.  "Bullshit is unavoidable whenever circumstances require someone to talk without knowing what he is talking about." Frankfurt distinguishes clearly between lies - the presenter clearly does not believe what they are saying, and bullshit, where the speaker is simply talking about which they know little.

Thursday, March 9, 2017

The Death of Skepticism and The Rise of Fake News

Skepticism is dead.  Skepticism has been captured and converted to dogmatism. When I was young, I remember one of my cousins commenting "You are such a skeptic." It made me feel proud to be skeptical, to search for the truth.  But today's, skeptics don't search for the truth. Most claim to have found it.

Skepticism has become the new religion. It's not a religion of analysis, nor thoughtfulness, nor of skepticism.  It's the religion of dogma. Skepticism has been co-opted, in service of the prevailing dogma, the invisible dogma.

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Freedom: Why all Our Bosses are Idiots

Did you ever wonder why your boss is an idiot? I mean, really.  It's a universal concept.  Do only idiots become bosses? Are bosses more likely to become idiots because of the pressures make them stupid? What's going on?

Actually, it's very, very complicated - but relatively easy to explain. Let's begin before the first boss, with the first sign of life.

Dead things, after all, don't have bosses.

Monday, January 23, 2017

How Healthy are Your Freedoms?

Are our freedoms healthy?  In healthicine, we say "Everyone has a right to life, liberty and the pursuit of healthiness" because healthiness includes all freedoms and more, and is therefore superior to freedoms. We often think of freedoms with the phrase "life and liberty", but there is much more to freedom.